Research Article Open Access

Characterization and Wash Performance Analysis of Microbial Extracellular Enzymes from East Calcutta Wetland in India

Ramesh Malathu1, Sanhita Chowdhury1, Madhusmita Mishra1, Sumana Das1, Prabhat Moharana1, Joydeep Mitra1, Ujjal K. Mukhopadhyay1, Ashoke Ranjan Thakur1 and Shaon Ray Chaudhuri1
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American Journal of Applied Sciences
Volume 5 No. 12, 2008, 1650-1661


Submitted On: 10 December 2008 Published On: 31 December 2008

How to Cite: Malathu, R., Chowdhury, S., Mishra, M., Das, S., Moharana, P., Mitra, J., Mukhopadhyay, U. K., Thakur, A. R. & Chaudhuri, S. R. (2008). Characterization and Wash Performance Analysis of Microbial Extracellular Enzymes from East Calcutta Wetland in India . American Journal of Applied Sciences, 5(12), 1650-1661.


Extracellular protease from a novel bacterial isolate showing maximum similarity of 98.22% with Microbacterium luteolum was obtained from East Calcutta Wetland, India. It showed compatibility with commercial detergents. The enzyme retains more than 60% of its activity between 6.0 to 10.5 pH. The maximum activity is at pH 7.5 with 71% activity at pH 10.0 and 10.5. The protease retained its activity between 4 to 60°C with maximum activity at 30°C and a residual activity of 74.4% at 60°C after overnight incubation. It was completely inhibited by 5mM PMSF pointing towards the presence of serine group of protease. Its inhibition by EDTA indicates the involvement of metal cations in its catalytic activity. It is not effected by Cu+2, partially inhibited by Pb+2 and Ni+2, while completely inhibited by Co+1, Cr+6, Zn+1, Al+3, Ag+3 and Hg+2. Strong reducing agents like β-merceptoethanol and oxidants like bleach and hydrogen peroxide inactivate the enzyme. The enzyme retains 88% of its activity on being mixed with commercially available detergents while it is inactivated by non-ionic Triton X 100. Its efficiency as an additive with detergent in terms of cleaning stains like grease, burnt mobil, vegetable curry and blood was found to be satisfactory. It could enhance the quality of washing as additive in case of all the ten detergents that were tried. The protease alone was also capable of cleaning but the detergent additive mixture could work better. The enzyme was found to work efficiently on different colors as well as on fabric. On mixing with detergent it was found to retain activity up to 2 months and there after, there was a drop in efficiency of washing. The bacterial cells were immobilized in calcium alginate and the released enzyme was found to be equally effective. Market surveys were carried out and the satisfactory result prompted the use of another additive (extracellular lipase) obtained from yet another bacterial strain from East Calcutta Wetland. The lipase activity was confirmed through degradation of coconut oil analyzed by Gas Chromatography. Thus the combination was observed to be more successful as indicated through the market survey. These observations suggest the suitability of the protease and lipase combination as additive to commercially available detergents.

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  • East Calcutta Wetland
  • protease secreting bacteria
  • extracellular lipase
  • detergent additive