Research Article Open Access

Toxicity evaluation of yoyo 'cleanser' bitters and fields Swedish bitters herbal preparations following sub-chronic administration in rats

Martins Ekor1, Odusoga Adewale Osonuga2, Adesina Olalekan Odewabi3, Adewale Ganiyu Bakre4 and Kolawole Sunday Oritogun2
  • 1 Redeemer’s University, Nigeria
  • 2 Olabisi Onabanjo University, Nigeria
  • 3 Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria
  • 4 Niger Delta University, Nigeria


Problem statement: Owing to numerous adverse effects of most orthodox pharmaceuticals, the use of herbal remedies in treatment and prevention of diseases is gaining much attention, especially in developing countries. The increase patronage of these remedies is often predicated on the assumption that they are harmless since they are prepared from natural sources. However, toxicity related to herbal medicines is becoming widely recognized. Yoyo ‘Cleanser’ Bitters (YB) and Fields Swedish Bitters (SB) are herbal preparations largely consumed in Nigeria because of their high publicity in the various national news media. This study evaluated their toxicity potentials following sub-chronic administration in rats. Approach: Thirty-five Wistar rats were divided into five groups of 7 rats/group. Control received normal saline while the experimental groups were treated separately with 15 and 30 mL kg-1 of YB and SB respectively. Treatment was given daily by gavage for 30 days. Body weights were measured weekly and rats were sacrificed 24 h after last treatment. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture for biochemical and haematological assessment. Vital organs were also excised and weighed. Results: YB and SB did not significantly affect creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Na+ ion but significantly (p<0.01) decreased K+ ion concentration when compared with control. Both herbal preparations produced moderate increases in alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities, with YB (30 mL kg-1) significantly (p<0.05) increasing the latter. YB and SB did not significantly alter total cholesterol, triglycerides and albumin but SB (30 mL kg-1) significantly (p<0.05) decreased total protein when compared with control. SB significantly (p<0.05) elevated white blood cell count while other haematological parameters, vital organs and body weights were not significantly affected by both herbal preparations. Conclusion: YB and SB possess the risk of inducing hypokalaemia. The potential to also increase markers of liver function calls for cautious use in conditions associated with liver impairment.

American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Volume 5 No. 4, 2010, 159-166


Submitted On: 7 April 2011 Published On: 13 June 2011

How to Cite: Ekor, M., Osonuga, O. A., Odewabi, A. O., Bakre, A. G. & Oritogun, K. S. (2010). Toxicity evaluation of yoyo 'cleanser' bitters and fields Swedish bitters herbal preparations following sub-chronic administration in rats. American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 5(4), 159-166.

  • 7 Citations



  • Yoyo Bitters
  • Swedish Bitters
  • Herbal remedies
  • Hepatotoxicity
  • Nephrotoxicity
  • Haematotoxicity