Research Article Open Access

The Effects of Crosslinker and Monomer to the Polymerization of Polymethacrylamide Gel Dosimeters by Direct and Indirect Methods

Elias Saion, A. H. Shaari, M. Z.A. Rahman, M. D.K. Zaman, Taiman Kadni, Aris Doyan and Susilawati


Radiation-induced polymerization in Polymethacrylamide Gels (PMAAGs) potentially used for 3D dose verification in radiotherapy has been studied using both Raman spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) method. The dosimeters are composed of aqueous Methacrylamide (MAA) monomer and N, N’ methyelene-bis-acrylamide (BIS) crosslinker at various concentrations from 2 to 6% (w/w) and gelatin at 6% (w/w). The dosimeters were irradiated to doses up to 30 Gy using 60Co teletherapy γ-ray source at a constant dose rate. The formation of the polymer increases with increasing dose and was followed directly by Raman spectroscopic measurement for CH3 stretching mode assigned to polymethacrylamide and indirectly by the transverse spin-echo pulse NMR R2 relaxation rate of water protons within the polymer gel network. The half dose D1/2 values of both direct and indirect methods were used to evaluate the effects of initial concentrations of monomer and crosslinker to the dose required to produce 50% of the polymer in PMAAGs. The PMAAGs containing more crosslinker than monomer show larger D1/2 values, indicating that the crosslinker has a larger effect on the increase in dose required to produce 50% of the polymer. The D1/2 value of the direct method is consistently higher than that of the indirect method, indicating that the indirect method is more sensitive to the dose response, but fundamentally does not measure the amount of polymethacrylamide formed. There is a correlation between D1/2 value and concentrations of monomer and crosslinker. The correlation factor, kC of the crosslinker is always greater than kM of monomer, for both the direct and indirect methods, suggesting the crosslinker reacts more efficiently than monomer to produce 50% of the polymer of polymethacrylamide.

American Journal of Applied Sciences
Volume 2 No. 8, 2005, 1248-1255


Submitted On: 11 August 2005 Published On: 31 August 2005

How to Cite: Saion, E., Shaari, A. H., Rahman, M. Z., Zaman, M. D., Kadni, T., Doyan, A. & Susilawati, (2005). The Effects of Crosslinker and Monomer to the Polymerization of Polymethacrylamide Gel Dosimeters by Direct and Indirect Methods. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 2(8), 1248-1255.

  • 3 Citations



  • Crosslinker
  • polymerization
  • direct method
  • polymethacrylamide gels
  • monomer