Research Article Open Access

The Upper Limit of Physiological Cardiac Hypertrophy in Elite Male Athletes

Mohammad Al Hnidawei1, Majed MjallI2 and Ziad Zayed3
  • 1 Department of Exercise Physiology, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
  • 2 Department of Cardiology, University of Jordan Hospital, Jordan
  • 3 College of Physical Education and Sport, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia


Problem statement: Establishment of upper normal limits of physiological hypertrophy in response to physical training is important in the differentiation of physiological and pathological left ventricular hypertrophy. The goal of our study was to investigate the normal upper limits of cardiac dimensions in elite athletes in Jordan in different types of sports (8 soccer players, 8 sprinters, 8 long distance runners, 6 weight lifters, 6 body builders). Approach: A total of 36 male athletes age 25±5 years of age, representing various sports were examined using standard two-dimensional guided M-mode and Doppler echocardiography to evaluate cardiac dimensions. Results: Results showed that 36 male athletes, 24 (66.6%) presented with LVEDD ≥50 mm with an upper limits of 53.4 mm sd 3.15, only 12 subjects (33.3%) presented with wall thickness values ≥11 mm, sd 0.53. None were found to have maximum wall thickness greater than 13 mm. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) between investigated sports in the left ventricular mass and left ventricular mass index in favor of endurance athletes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure function was within normal limits for all athletes. Results from the present study suggested that upper normal limits for LV wall thickness and LV mass are 11.0 mm and 235.4 g m for elite male Jordanian athletes. Conclusion: There is a sport-specific left ventricular adaptation, the endurance heart differ significantly from the rest of the athletes investigated heart.

American Journal of Applied Sciences
Volume 7 No. 10, 2010, 1327-1333


Submitted On: 19 June 2010 Published On: 31 October 2010

How to Cite: Hnidawei, M. A., MjallI, M. & Zayed, Z. (2010). The Upper Limit of Physiological Cardiac Hypertrophy in Elite Male Athletes. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(10), 1327-1333.

  • 3 Citations



  • Athlete's heart
  • echocardiograph
  • left ventricular hypertrophy
  • cardiac dimension