The Upper Limit of Physiological Cardiac Hypertrophy in Elite Male Athletes
Problem statement: Establishment of upper normal limits of physiological hypertrophy in response to physical training is important in the differentiation of physiological and pathological left ventricular hypertrophy. The goal of our study was to investigate the normal upper limits of cardiac dimensions in elite athletes in Jordan in different types of sports (8 soccer players, 8 sprinters, 8 long distance runners, 6 weight lifters, 6 body builders). Approach: A total of 36 male athletes age 25±5 years of age, representing various sports were examined using standard two-dimensional guided M-mode and Doppler echocardiography to evaluate cardiac dimensions. Results: Results showed that 36 male athletes, 24 (66.6%) presented with LVEDD ≥50 mm with an upper limits of 53.4 mm sd 3.15, only 12 subjects (33.3%) presented with wall thickness values ≥11 mm, sd 0.53. None were found to have maximum wall thickness greater than 13 mm. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) between investigated sports in the left ventricular mass and left ventricular mass index in favor of endurance athletes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure function was within normal limits for all athletes. Results from the present study suggested that upper normal limits for LV wall thickness and LV mass are 11.0 mm and 235.4 g m for elite male Jordanian athletes. Conclusion: There is a sport-specific left ventricular adaptation, the endurance heart differ significantly from the rest of the athletes investigated heart.
Copyright: © 2010 Mohammad Al Hnidawei, Majed MjallI and Ziad Zayed. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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- Athlete's heart
- left ventricular hypertrophy
- cardiac dimension