Research Article Open Access

X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescent Analyses of Prehistoric Pottery Shards from Ulu Kelantan

Zuliskandar Ramli1, Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abdul Rahman1, Adnan Jusoh2 and Yunus Sauman2
  • 1 Institute of the Malay World and Civilisation, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 2 Department of History, Faculty of Human Sciences, Sultan Idris Education University, 35900 Tanjong Malim, Malaysia


Problem statement: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescent (XRF) were used in order to obtain mineralogical and elemental composition of seven pottery shards that have been unearthed during the excavation at Peraling Cave and Cha Cave in Ulu Kelantan, Malaysia. Approach: Peraling Cave and Cha Cave were prehistoric sites dating from 10, 000 BC which were inhabited by Hoabinhian people and then continuously used by people of Neolithic culture around 3000 BC. Results: Mineralogical and elemental analyses were carried out to determine whether the pottery found in the archaeological sites was locally made or trading items. Several clay samples from rivers in Ulu Kelantan such as Perias River, Chai River, Peralon River, Nenggiri River, Betis River and Jenera River were taken to be analysed. Conclusion/Recommendations: Mineralogical and elemental content of the pottery shards showed that the pottery shards did not originate from the Ulu Kelantan area and one of the samples contained clinochlore mineral. Clinochlore forms from the metamorphic and hydrothermal alterations of other iron and magnesium silicate minerals and is usually found in igneus rock and metamorphic rock formation.

American Journal of Applied Sciences
Volume 8 No. 12, 2011, 1337-1342


Submitted On: 3 October 2011 Published On: 20 October 2011

How to Cite: Ramli, Z., Abdul Rahman, N. H. S. N., Jusoh, A. & Sauman, Y. (2011). X-Ray Diffraction and X-Ray Fluorescent Analyses of Prehistoric Pottery Shards from Ulu Kelantan. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 8(12), 1337-1342.

  • 5 Citations



  • X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
  • X-Ray Fluorescent (XRF)
  • pottery
  • ulu kelantan