Positron Annihilation Study on Nickel and Iron Nano-Particles in Natural Rubber Composites
Problem statement: The effect of Ni and Fe nano-particles as a filler on the free volume properties Of Natural Rubber (NR) was studied using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). Approach: The PAL measurements revealed that the free volume properties are strongly affected by the amount and type of filler. Results: Particularly speaking, the free volume fraction dramatically decreased by increasing the filler content. Besides, the addition of nano-prticles created new positron trapping sites at filler-rubber interfaces. Furthermore, correlations were made between the free volume hole sizes (Vh) and each of the mechanical and electrical properties successively. A negative correlation was observed between Vh and hardness in the Ni-rubber composites while a positive counterpart was found in the case of Fe-rubber composites. Finally, the polarity of the fillers, being higher than that of the rubber itself, leads to an increase in electrical parameters and an inhibition of o-Ps formation. Conclusion: These results indicate that the investigated composites are considered to be insulating materials as their conductivity values are in the order of an insulator range.
Copyright: © 2011 Emad Hassan Aly. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
- 2,259 Views
- 3,065 Downloads
- 14 Citations
- Free volume
- crosslinking density
- tensile strength
- dielectric loss
- Natural Rubber (NR)
- Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS)
- Rubber Ferrite Composites (RFC)
- nanoscopic inorganic
- polymer nanocomposites
- Polymer Bonded Magnets (PBMs)