Research Article Open Access

Association of Anthropometric and Metabolic Variables with Cardiovascular Disease among Urban and Rural Origin

Badaruddoza1, Kushal Gill1 and Raman Kumar1
  • 1 Department of Human Genetics, Faculty of Life Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar-143 005, Punjab, India


Problem statement: We have examined the prevalence and association of cardiovascular diseases with respect to obesity and metabolic risk factors clustering among urban and rural Punjabi males aged 20-55 years. Obesity has been defined by increased Waist Circumference (WC), Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR). Metabolic traits such as increased total cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoproteins have also detrimental effect on the development of cardiovascular disease. Approach: This cross-sectional study was carried out on a total of 400 urban and rural origin Punjabi males (200 each from urban and rural). The anthropometric, physiometric and metabolic assessments were through standard procedures. Statistical analysis includes descriptive statistics, correlation, multivariate regression analysis and odds ratios. Results: It observed that males of rural population were at a higher risk to develop cardiovascular diseases compared to their urban counterparts. Rural males had significantly (p<0.001) higher mean values of cardiovascular risk factors with respect to BMI, weight, waist circumference, WHR, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and CHO-HDL ratio. SBP and DBP have positive association with waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index; waist circumference, skinfolds, pulse pressure, alcohol consumptions, food habit, HDL and triglyceride. Conclusion: Cardiovascular disease risk is found more in rural male Punjabi population due to consumption of more dietary products and leading of more sedentary lifestyle due to the overuse of mechanized substances for agriculture and personal use.

American Journal of Applied Sciences
Volume 8 No. 10, 2011, 953-961


Submitted On: 20 January 2011 Published On: 20 August 2011

How to Cite: Badaruddoza, Gill, K. & Kumar, R. (2011). Association of Anthropometric and Metabolic Variables with Cardiovascular Disease among Urban and Rural Origin. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 8(10), 953-961.

  • 3 Citations



  • Punjabi males
  • blood pressure
  • anthropometric and metabolic phenotypes
  • Waist Circumference (WC)
  • Waist Hip Ratio (WHR)
  • Body Mass Index (BMI)
  • Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP)
  • Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP)
  • inferior margin
  • Indo-Aryan ethnic groups
  • Total Cholesterol (CHO)
  • Triglycerides (TG)