Research Article Open Access

Production and Characterization of Bio-Char from the Pyrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunches

Mohamad Azri Sukiran1, Loh Soh Kheang1, Nasrin Abu Bakar1 and Choo Yuen May1
  • 1 Engineering and Processing Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, No. 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia


Problem statement: The palm oil industry generates an abundance of oil palm biomass such as the Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), shell, frond, trunk and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). For 88 million tones of Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) processed in 2008, the amount of oil palm biomass was more than 26 million tones. Studies about production of bio-char from oil palm biomass are still lacking in Malaysia. So, this study was aimed to: (i) determine the effect of pyrolysis temperatures on bio-char yield (ii) characterize the bio-char obtained under different pyrolysed temperatures. Approach: In this study, pyrolysis of EFB was conducted using a fluidized fixed bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperatures on bio-char yield was investigated. The pyrolysis temperature used ranged from 300-700°C. The elemental analysis, calorific value, surface area and total pore volume of the bio-char were determined. Results: The highest bio char yield of 41.56% was obtained at an optimum pyrolysis temperature of 300°C with particle size of 91-106 μm and the heating rate of 30°C min-1. The calorific values of bio-char ranged from 23-26 MJ kg-1. Conclusion: It was found that the bio-char products can be characterized as carbon rich, high calorific value and potential solid biofuels.

American Journal of Applied Sciences
Volume 8 No. 10, 2011, 984-988


Submitted On: 22 July 2010 Published On: 20 August 2011

How to Cite: Sukiran, M. A., Kheang, L. S., Bakar, N. A. & May, C. Y. (2011). Production and Characterization of Bio-Char from the Pyrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunches. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 8(10), 984-988.

  • 175 Citations



  • Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB)
  • pyrolysis
  • bio-char and palm oil