Ganoderma Species Associated with Basal Stem Rot Disease of Oil Palm
- 1 Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia Bintulu Sarawak Campus, Nyabau Road, 97000 Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia
- 2 Ganoderma and Diseases Research for Oil Palm (GANODROP) Unit, Biological Research Division, Malaysia Palm Oil Board, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
Problem statement: Basal Stem Rot disease (BSR) is one of the most serious diseases that have been causing major losses in the oil palm industry in Southeast Asia, especially in Malaysia and Indonesia. Several species of Ganoderma have been reported pathogenic to oil palm, however, the diversity and differentiation of the Ganoderma species were not widely studied and the identity of these species are still unclear which may lead to inaccurate and inefficient decision-making in disease management. Approach: In this study, several isolates of Ganoderma were collected in Sarawak, Malaysia and the Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction was carried out to differentiate the isolates into species level. This was followed by morphological studies of basidiocarp of the Ganoderma isolates cultivated via artificial cultivation whereby parameters, such as basidiocarp and spore size, color and physical morphology were recorded. Results: Multiplex PCR could be used to differentiate the Ganoderma isolates, however, optimization had to be done to obtain convincing results. Morphology studies of the Ganoderma isolates showed that spore length could be used to distinguish among the Ganoderma species. Conclusion: Three Ganoderma species viz., G. boninense, G. zonatum and G. miniatocinctum are associated with the basal stem rot disease in Sarawak. Further studies on Ganoderma morphological traits is suggested so that immediate identification method can be developed to give guidance in deciding the most suitable way for control measures without any delay, leading to reduced palm deaths and disease control cost, thus, reducing losses in the oil palm industry.
Copyright: © 2012 Ling-Chie Wong, Choon-Fah J. Bong and A. S. Idris. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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- Ganoderma boninense
- Ganoderma zonatum
- Ganoderma miniatocinctum
- basal stem rot disease
- multiplex PCR-DNA
- oil palm