Health Risk Assessment of Nitrate Exposure in Well Water of Residents in Intensive Agriculture Area
- 1 Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Nitrate in well water has become a public health concern especially in agriculture areas. Nitrate contamination in drinking water poses health risks to humans. This cross-sectional study was conducted with an aim to determine the health risk of residents in intensive agriculture area of Bachok Kelantan from nitrate exposure in drinking well water. Nitrate in well water was determined with Spectrophotometer while the health risk was determined through calculation of Chronic Daily Intake (CDI) and Hazard Index (HI). Results indicate that nitrate level in this study was below the Maximum Concentration Limit of National Drinking Water Quality Standard of Malaysia (NDWQS) (<10 mg L-1) with the Mean ± SD of 1.66±2.11 mg L-1 and range between 0 to 9.60 mg L-1. The highest Mean ± SD of nitrate was determined in Kampung Aman (3.34±4.07 mg L-1). The mean ± SD for CDI was 0.051±0.086 mg kg day-1 and the HI was <1. This indicate the health risk of residents from nitrate exposure in this area were in acceptable range.
Copyright: © 2013 Noraziah Jamaludin, Shaharuddin Mohd Sham and Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed Ismail. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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- Well Water
- Intensive Agriculture Area
- Health Hazard
- Bachok Kelantan