Research Article Open Access

Willingness to Communicate in English: Academic Motivation and using English outside the Classroom as Predictors

Mr. Ahmed Fahim Youssef1
  • 1 Department of Education, SEGi University, Malaysia


Willingness to Communicate (WTC) in English has become a field of interest since the construct was introduced by McCroskey and Baer in 1985. This study, investigated 230 trainee teachers' Willingness to Communicate in English with a focus on their Academic Motivation and Their use of English outside the classroom. Gender, nationality, ethnic group, specialization and years of study at the Faculty of Education were considered while exploring the three mentioned variables. The results of the study revealed that participants preferred to initiate communication in English with friends rather than acquaintances or strangers even though the interview results showed they were willing to communicate in English with strangers more than individual friends or groups of friends from the same ethnic group. The findings indicated that there were significant differences based on gender and nationality in UEC. There were significant differences among participants in WTC and UEC based on their ethnic group and specialization. Participants from different years in the Faculty of Education were significantly different in WTC, AM and UEC. The correlation was positive between WTC and both UEC and AM. The results of regression analysis showed that the most effective determiner of Willingness to Communicate in English is participants "Use of English outside the Classroom. Exposure to the English language from an early age in addition to family support of the use of English shaped the participants" view of the English language and determined their competency. Based on the findings a better understanding of trainee teachers "cognitive abilities, attitudes about self and university, as well as their language skills would help in improving their WTC in English. Changing classroom environment and grouping technique to avoid putting students from the same ethnicity in the same group can ensure that the only language used will be English. Providing opportunities outside the classroom for communicating in English through English language clubs, journeys to English speaking countries, debates, drama, songs and free writing competitions can help them communicate in English away from the stress caused by curriculum based activities linked to credits and grades. Furthermore, communication between faculty and home is important to understand better factors that may affect trainee teachers" Willingness to Communicate in English.

American Journal of Applied Sciences
Volume 13 No. 12, 2016, 1365-1376


Submitted On: 5 July 2016 Published On: 11 December 2016

How to Cite: Youssef, M. A. F. (2016). Willingness to Communicate in English: Academic Motivation and using English outside the Classroom as Predictors. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 13(12), 1365-1376.

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  • Willingness to Communicate in English
  • Academic Motivation
  • Using English Outside the Classroom
  • Ethnic Groups
  • Gender