Research Article Open Access

Measurement of Cooling Load-Based Occupant Behavior in Under-Actuated Zones: A Time-Variance Approach

Yaddarabullah1, Yusuf Maulana Akbar1, Aedah Binti Abd Rahman2 and Amna Saad3
  • 1 Department of Informatics, Universitas Trilogi, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • 2 School of Science and Technology, Asia e University, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 3 Malaysian Institute of Information Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


This research is dedicated to the enhancement of Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems through an innovative investigation of occupant behavior within under-actuated zones. These zones are strategically positioned to elevate indoor air quality and comfort through the intelligent utilization of HVAC systems. However, accurately measuring the cooling loads within these zones, which are inherently influenced by the presence of occupants, their activities, and appliance usage, presents a formidable challenge. To effectively tackle this challenge, our study introduces a pioneering methodology that intricately links cooling load measurements to occupant behavior in under-actuated zones. Central to this methodology is the comprehensive consideration of critical factors, including occupant count, activity patterns, and operation of diverse appliances. Notably, our analysis employs a dynamic temporal lens to scrutinize time variances and intervals. To discern underlying behavioral patterns in under-actuated zones, we employed the Hartigan’s dip test, an analytical tool that captures the multimodal distribution of time variances. This highlights the intricate behavioral trends that are pivotal for optimizing HVAC strategies. Moreover, our analysis integrates advanced statistical techniques, such as polynomial regression, to evaluate cooling loads and determine the optimal time intervals. Through rigorous examination, we identified four zones exhibiting bimodal distributions and one zone characterized by a unique trimodal distribution. These findings not only establish appropriate time intervals for fine-tuning cooling loads based on occupant behavior but also yield robust correlations, with R-squared values exceeding 0.9. An essential facet of our study pertains to ethical dimensions. We meticulously addressed considerations concerning human subjects, ensuring unwavering integrity and adherence to the established ethical guidelines.

American Journal of Applied Sciences
Volume 20 No. 1, 2023, 48-64


Submitted On: 3 August 2023 Published On: 11 December 2023

How to Cite: Yaddarabullah, Akbar, Y. M., Rahman, A. B. A. & Saad, A. (2023). Measurement of Cooling Load-Based Occupant Behavior in Under-Actuated Zones: A Time-Variance Approach. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 20(1), 48-64.

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  • Time Variance Analysis
  • Internal Cooling Load
  • HVAC System
  • Occupant Behavior
  • Under-Actuated Zone