Research Article Open Access

Chronic and Acute Effect of Tramadol Intoxication on Some Immunological Parameters

Loveday Udu Zebedee1, Zaccheus Awortu Jeremiah2, Nyebuchi Jonathan3 and Eni-Yimini Solomon Agoro4
  • 1 Federal Medical Centre, Nigeria
  • 2 Niger Delta University, Nigeria
  • 3 Rivers State University, Nigeria
  • 4 Federal University Otuoke, Nigeria


Tramadol intoxication is rapidly on the increase in Nigeria with unestablished short-term and long-term effects. The study was aimed at elucidating the dose-dependent effect of acute or chronic tramadol intoxication on some immunological parameters using male rats (Rattus norvegicus). A total of fifty adult rats were used for the study as indicated by Mead's Resource Equation. The study consisted of acute and chronic categories of fifty adult rats randomly pair-divided into groups of six rats each. The acute phase consisted of a control group of 6 rats administered with normal saline solution and a treatment group of 6 rats administered with lethal dose of tramadol. The chronic phase comprised of control group of 6 rats and 3 tramadol-dependent groups of 6 rats each administered orally with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of tramadol for a period of 90 days respectively. Student t-test, one-way Anova and Pearson correlations were the statistical tools used for the data analysis employing JMP statistical discovery™ software version 14.1. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for immunological examination using World Health Organization (WHO) approved methods. The study revealed that concentrations IgG, IgM and CD4 were significantly elevated (p>0.05) in the acute treatment group compared with the controls. However, the chronic phase of the study showed a progressive significant increase (p>0.05) in CD4 count. Conclusively, the study has demonstrated that tramadol intoxication has the preponderances of altering the immune apparatuses of the body.

American Journal of Immunology
Volume 17 No. 1, 2021, 1-13


Submitted On: 16 November 2020 Published On: 24 April 2021

How to Cite: Zebedee, L. U., Jeremiah, Z. A., Jonathan, N. & Agoro, E. S. (2021). Chronic and Acute Effect of Tramadol Intoxication on Some Immunological Parameters. American Journal of Immunology, 17(1), 1-13.

  • 0 Citations



  • Tramadol
  • Rats
  • Globulins
  • CD4
  • White Cells
  • Proteins