Research Article Open Access

Robust and Blind Watermarking of Relational Database Systems

A. Al-Haj and A. Odeh


Problem statement: Digital multimedia watermarking technology was suggested in the last decade to embed copyright information in digital objects such images, audio and video. However, the increasing use of relational database systems in many real-life applications created an ever increasing need for watermarking database systems. As a result, watermarking relational database systems is now merging as a research area that deals with the legal issue of copyright protection of database systems. Approach: In this study, we proposed an efficient database watermarking algorithm based on inserting binary image watermarks in non-numeric mutli-word attributes of selected database tuples. Results: The algorithm is robust as it resists attempts to remove or degrade the embedded watermark and it is blind as it does not require the original database in order to extract the embedded watermark. Conclusion: Experimental results demonstrated blindness and the robustness of the algorithm against common database attacks.

Journal of Computer Science
Volume 4 No. 12, 2008, 1024-1029


Submitted On: 26 September 2008 Published On: 31 December 2008

How to Cite: Al-Haj, A. & Odeh, A. (2008). Robust and Blind Watermarking of Relational Database Systems. Journal of Computer Science, 4(12), 1024-1029.

  • 40 Citations



  • Digital watermarking
  • relational database systems
  • copyright protection
  • ownership verification
  • usability
  • robustness
  • watermark embedding
  • watermark extraction