Research Article Open Access

Context-based Machine Translation of English-Hindi using CE-Encoder

Mani Bansal1 and D. K. Lobiyal1
  • 1 Jawaharlal Nehru University, India


The difficulty in obtaining accurate word alignment and determining a target word that is the best candidate for a source context in machine translation leads to different translations. In this study, we propose a method with a more accurate context model. Our Neural Machine Translation (NMT) approach focuses on the encoder to apprehend the meaning of source sentences for improved translation. The recurrent encoder works by taking into consideration the history and future information of the source context. In this study, we implement the proposed approach into three steps. Firstly, we learn the representation of future context in advance. Secondly, a context-based recurrent encoder called as CE-Encoder with   two-level Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) is used. In this, the bottom-level GRU gathers history data of a sentence and top-level GRU assembles future data information. Finally, the future learned context and the history information from the opposite direction is integrated. The distinguishing factor of the proposed framework from the existing models, specifically Bidirectional Recurrent Neural Network (BiRNN) is that, the current models have not spent substantial time and capacity in learning future context or disambiguating source and target words based on the context which is defined by source sentence. We conduct experiments on the datasets from ILCC and CFILT for the English-Hindi language pair. From the comparative evaluation, we observed that the proposed model outperforms the Bidirectional RNN encoder in terms of translation quality. The proposed model has shown the improvement of 7 Bleu points using the ILCC dataset and 9 points using the CFILT dataset over BiRNN.

Journal of Computer Science
Volume 17 No. 9, 2021, 827-847


Submitted On: 25 May 2021 Published On: 30 September 2021

How to Cite: Bansal, M. & Lobiyal, D. K. (2021). Context-based Machine Translation of English-Hindi using CE-Encoder. Journal of Computer Science, 17(9), 827-847.

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  • Neural Machine Translation
  • Recurrent Neural Network
  • English-Hindi
  • CE-Encoder
  • BLEU