3D and 4D Printing as Integrated Manufacturing Methods of Industry 4.0
- 1 Department of Industrial Design and Production Engineering, University of West Attica, 12244 Athens, Greece
- 2 Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of West Attica, 12244 Athens, Greece
3D printing, also known under the term additive manufacturing, is a technology that allows the creation of complex and highly detailed objects using a digital model and a number of materials, such as plastics, metals, and ceramics. 4D printing is an expansion of 3D printing that incorporates time, meaning that the material used in 3D printing can change shape or properties over time. This technology is becoming increasingly important in the context of Industry 4.0, characterized by the Integration of cutting-edge technologies, including artificial intelligence, the internet of things, and advanced robotics into manufacturing processes. In Industry 4.0, 3D and 4D printing is being used to create customized products, improve supply chain efficiency and reduce costs and lead times. Additionally, 3D and 4D printing is also being utilized in sectors like aerospace, regenerative medicine and dental, and automotive to create complex geometries and parts that would be challenging or impossible to create using conventional production techniques. Furthermore, 4D printing opens up new opportunities in emerging, novel, sectors where the ability to create materials that adapt and change over time can be highly beneficial.
Copyright: © 2023 Antreas Kantaros, Theodore Ganetsos and Dimitrios Piromalis. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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- 3D Printing
- 4D Printing
- Smart Materials
- 4th Industrial Revolution
- Industry 4.0