Research Article Open Access

Distress About Covid-19 in Panama: Psychometric Structure

Ericka Matus1, Lorena Matus2, Ana Florez3, Ana Toriz4, Alfredo Cuevas5 and Jay Molino6
  • 1 Universidad Especializada de las Américas, Panama
  • 2 Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico
  • 3 Universidad Latina de Panamá, Panama
  • 4 Universidad de Panama, Panama
  • 5 Secretariat of Public Education, Mexico
  • 6 Sistema Nacional de Investigación (SNI), Panama


The psychological impact of the pandemic has established the urgent need to respond to the needs of the population in each culture, region and context. Thus, in the Republic of Panama, the efforts of numerous specialists have combined actions to attend to the crisis. This study aims to obtain the factor structure and psychometric properties of the SARS-CoV-2 distress scale, which, together with eight other questionnaires, make up the battery to measure the psychological and behavioral consequences of the health crisis, based on the COVID Stress global survey initiative. We employed a non-probabilistic sample of 765 Panamanian adults who responded entirely online during the lockdown stage in March. The instrument is composed of 24 items that proved to be valid and reliable for the Panamanian sample. The main findings show that distress is linked to uncertainty and the financial situation and not due to health or education. In addition, single men with less schooling have higher levels of uncertainty and distress in general.

Journal of Social Sciences
Volume 17 No. 1, 2021, 169-174


Submitted On: 16 September 2021 Published On: 24 November 2021

How to Cite: Matus, E., Matus, L., Florez, A., Toriz, A., Cuevas, A. & Molino, J. (2021). Distress About Covid-19 in Panama: Psychometric Structure. Journal of Social Sciences, 17(1), 169-174.

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  • Distress
  • COVID-19
  • Panama
  • Pandemic
  • Scale